VIDEO | Incorporation in Canada

I am Michael Velletta, a founding partner of Canadian law firm Velletta & Company. Why should you choose British Columbia as your place to incorporate? For those desiring to do business in Canada the obvious jurisdiction of choice is British Columbia.

 

British Columbia is an investor friendly environment and has the most contemporary business laws in Canada. Perhaps, even the most contemporary anywhere on the globe. These laws reduce bureaucracy and increase flexibility. An interesting feature of incorporating in British Columbia is that at the same time you incorporate in BC you can also incorporate into Alberta, which is the neighboring province.

 

In fact British Columbia companies can be extra-provincially registered in every jurisdiction in Canada and can be extra-territorially register in just about every jurisdiction around the globe. One advantage of being a British Columbia company is that you have access to the Canadian legal system which is considered extremely stable and is very well-respected. It also meshes well with all US jurisdictions, Australia, New Zealand, Great Britain and many other corporate business jurisdictions around the globe.

 

A BC incorporation also gives you great opportunities and exposure to Canadian capital markets with the Toronto Stock Exchange that Toronto Stock Exchange, Venture, which is the junior market, and the Canadian Stock Exchange. In addition, companies that are listed companies in Canada can at the same time use documents filed in Canada on inter-listed U.S. stock exchanges such as NASDAQ, the American Stock Exchange and the New York Stock Exchange.

 

Finally, the cost of doing business in Canada is much more attractive than most other jurisdictions. You might be surprised to learn that the tax regime in Canada is not very aggressive, and is in deed much more attractive than most U.S. jurisdictions.

 

Velletta & Company is adept at advising international clients on all corporate matters, and particularly creating your British Columbia Corporation. I hope that you will let Velletta & Company provide you with corporate advice and be a part of your team.

 

Employment Law Part 2-NEW VIDEO!

 

Hi, my name is Eric Pedersen I’m a lawyer for Velletta and Company practicing employment law. Today we’re going to talk about another employment law topic which is constructive dismissal. Now the constructive dismissal is really just a fancy way to say, “I quit” to your employer to also at the same time exercise and enforce all of the rights that you would have if you were an employee who was fired without cause.

The general rule of thumb in British Columbia is that an employee who quits their position isn’t going to be entitled to any severance pay or any notice they’re walking away from the job and that’s on them. But constructive dismissal is a very specific category in the law that allows an employee who quits to bring a claim against the employer for severance. The idea is that although the employer hasn’t fired the employee they have by their conduct in the way that they might have changed the employee’s workplace duties changed their employment. Such to the point that they’ve pretty much been fired and have all of the rights of a fired employee.

Not every minor change that an employer might make to an employee’s employment contractor to their workplace will result in an employee having the rights of a constructively dismissed employee. A really obvious example would be if you were a CEO one day and then you showed up the next day you were demoted to janitor. Well you haven’t been fired but you have pretty much been fired.

So you have all of this same rights to claim for severance as an employee who was fired but not all cases are black and white. And there’s a lot of grey area. It’s important that you do consult a lawyer before exercising the option of constructive dismissal.

 

W. Eric Pedersen is a lawyer practising in Velletta & Company’s civil litigation department. Mr. Pedersen has worked with the civil litigation department to achieve successful outcomes for individuals and businesses, appearing in Provincial Court, Supreme Court, and the British Columbia Court of Appeal. His practice is focussed primarily on the following areas: Personal injury and motor vehicle claims, Employment and Human Rights Law, Commercial litigation, Real estate litigation, General insurance litigation, Disability insurance litigation and General civil litigation.

Promissory Notes

Promissory Notes: Ancient Origins, Modern Importance

Promissory notes are believed to have originated in ancient China, and then made their way into European history, before ultimately becoming an important part of modern business. In ancient times money was made of precious metal, and any large transfer of funds over a distance was a heavy proposition, so promissory notes evolved as a lighter alternative. Now it is common to use promissory notes in many different business transactions, and for loans between private individuals. The Canadian Bills of Exchange Act (R.S.C., 1985, c. B-4) creates a statutory definition in section 176(1) for promissory notes in Canada:

 

“an unconditional promise in writing made by one person to another person, signed by the maker, engaging to pay, on demand or at a fixed or determinable future time, a sum certain in money to, or to the order of, a specified person or to bearer.”

 

Benefits of Promissory Notes

The main benefit of a promissory note is that it clearly documents an obligation to pay money, and creates a strong cause of action in the event that the issuer defaults upon the note. The signed promissory note is effective from the time it is made, and is an independent obligation of the issuer. If the note is drafted properly, the holder of the note can sue upon it without having to prove much beyond the fact that the defendant issued the note, and then defaulted upon it.

 

Strategically, having a signed promissory note can be invaluable to a creditor seeking to collect upon a debt. Collections work is pragmatic, and no creditor wants to spend more money enforcing a debt than the debt is actually worth. Litigation is expensive, and it takes a significant amount of time to obtain a judgement. In order to provide a more efficient method of obtaining judgment, the British Columbia Supreme Court Civil Rules contain a process called a summary trial. A summary trial is available in cases where a judge is able to decide the issue without having to hear live testimony and weigh the credibility of the parties. A signed promissory note can help a creditor to qualify for the summary trial process, and as a result obtain a more rapid and cost effective judgment against the debtor.

 

Pitfalls of Promissory Notes

 

1: A Sum Certain in Money

In order to be a promissory note, the document must make it clear that the issuer of the note is unconditionally promising to pay a specific amount of money. This makes a promissory note distinguishable from a revolving line of credit. The note must make it clear how much is owed by the issuer of the note. If the amount is not clear, then you have no promissory note, and consequently a big problem.

 

2: Interest

If the note contains interest, it must be clear how interest is calculated. This ties in to the requirement that the note be for a sum certain in money. The interest must be capable of being objectively calculated, and this requires that the rate of interest be stated, along with the formula for how interest is calculated – e.g. simple interest, or interest compounded monthly.

 

3: Notice of Default or Demand for Payment

Notes need to make it clear when a default has occurred. Many notes with regular payments contain a provision that the holder of the note must give notice of default to the issuer of the note, and the issuer must fail to remedy the default within a certain period of time, before the issuer can accelerate the debt and collect. If you are the one signing the promissory note, you may want a provision that gives you time to remedy a default without the holder of the note taking collection actions. On the other hand, if you are the holder of the note, you need to make sure that you give notice of a default correctly, and wait the requisite amount of time before taking collection actions.

 

For promissory notes that are payable on demand, you will also likely want to include in the note the amount of time that the issuer has to pay the note, after demand has been given. Under the common law, the issuer had a reasonable amount of time to satisfy the demand, and this had to be assessed taking into consideration the amount of the note. You would be wise to include a specific amount of time in order to avoid this issue, and make it totally clear how much time the issuer has to satisfy the demand.

 

For both defaults on installment notes, or demands for repayment on demand notes, the note should specify whether the notice must be given in writing, and whether it needs to be given at a particular place. In order to give effective notice, the holder of the note will need to comply with these requirements, or else the notice may be ineffective and therefore not trigger the issuer’s obligations.

 

4: Limitation Periods

Promissory notes can be either due on demand, or else contain specific dates on which payments must be made. For both types of notes, if the issuer defaults, you must bring a civil action to enforce the note within the applicable limitation period. The Limitation Act [SBC 2012] c.13 creates a general two year limitation period to commence a civil action. This limitation period runs from the date that the claim is discovered. For a note with regular payments, a claim would usually be discovered when the issuer of the note defaults upon a payment and fails to remedy the default within any time specified in the note.

 

For demand notes however, the situation is potentially much different. A note payable on demand can be demanded by the holder of the note at any time. Under the common law, demand notes were considered to be due and payable when the note was issued, and the limitation period ran from that date. Fortunately, the Limitation Act contains section 14, which provides that for claims upon a demand obligation, the claim is discovered on the first day that there is a failure to perform the obligation after a demand for performance has been made. This protects the holder of a demand note from their claim becoming statute barred before they have even issued a demand for performance. This only protects the holders of demand notes in British Columbia, and other jurisdictions might have less forgiving limitation periods.

 

Whether your note is payable in installments, or due on demand, it is vital to commence your enforcement proceedings quickly after there is a default. Failing to do so might result in your claim expiring, and then you are left unable to collect upon the amount in court.

 

5: Acceleration on Default

When a note contains payment in installments, and a payment is missed, this traditionally only allows the holder of the note to sue for the missed payment. The holder of the note could not sue for the full amount of the note unless there is a provision allowing the holder to accelerate the debt. Acceleration is important, because if the issuer of the note starts missing payments, you want to be able to claim the whole amount owing immediately, and not have to commence a separate lawsuit for each missed payment as the payments are missed. Promissory notes are subject to the legal rule of contra proferentem, meaning that courts will strictly interpret any ambiguity in the note against the party who drafted it, resolving any doubt about the meaning of a term in favor of the other party. It is important that the provision is drafted clearly, and gives the holder of the note the unambiguous right to claim the entire outstanding amount as immediately due and owing if the issuer of the note defaults upon a single payment.

 

From a practical point of view, you might choose not to accelerate the note, but the threat of doing so is a powerful bargaining chip to keep the issuer of the note on track with their payments.

 

Why Hire a Lawyer for a Promissory Note?

Our office routinely sees promissory notes that were drafted by the parties themselves without the benefit of legal assistance. These notes can range from relatively well drafted notes that are still enforceable despite their flaws, to totally useless pieces of paper that provide nothing more than a false sense of security. Even worse, we see clients who loaned money or made an agreement verbally and did not get a signed promissory note at all, which makes it potentially much harder to collect the amount owed.

 

For a lawyer, drafting an enforceable promissory note is relatively simple, and can be done for the client affordably. The lawyer will also meet with you to review your specific circumstances, and can advise you about any particular pitfalls in your situation, or about additional steps that you can take to protect yourself. In many cases, if you are loaning money and the debtor has assets, you might also want to obtain security over those assets so that you have collateral in the event that the debtor defaults. When the small cost of having a lawyer draft the note is compared with the huge hassle you can face in the event of a default, it is clear that if you are lending any significant amount of money, you’d be wise to have a lawyer prepare a promissory note.

Always Get It in Writing

If they ever existed, the days of doing business based on a handshake and a verbal agreement seem to be long gone. We regularly have clients come to our firm with disputes in which there is no written agreement. The failure to draft a written agreement often results in a complicated fact situation that has to be sorted out by our firm and another law firm. For example, we recently assisted a client who had become embroiled in a contentious partnership dispute over a small business. While we ultimately resolved the matter with a large degree of success, it would have been much simpler, and a dispute may have been avoided entirely, if the parties had formalized their arrangement in a written agreement.

 

The Gold Standard:

In terms of enforceability, the gold standard is usually a professionally drafted contract, signed by both parties, after having received independent legal advice. Depending upon the complexity of the agreement, such a contract might cost several thousand dollars to prepare; however, if the subject matter of the contract is valuable, this cost is money well spent to protect each party in the event of a dispute. If you’re starting a business partnership that you expect to last for many profitable years, spending some money up front will help protect that business, and will help avoid your hard work being swallowed up in lawyers’ fees after a dispute develops.

 

For simpler agreements, it can be surprisingly cost effective to have a contract drafted by a lawyer, and having the contract professionally drafted will provide the peace of mind that it includes all of the proper legal formalities to make it enforceable. Sadly, we often see contracts that are drafted by the parties themselves, and these can range from perfectly enforceable contracts, to ones that lack basic legal certainties necessary to make the agreement enforceable.

 

Reconsider DIY Contracts:

We generally recommend that people do not attempt to draft their own contracts, or pull contracts from the internet in the hopes that they can tailor that general contract to their specific needs. We have seen client drafted contracts for Canadian clients contain errors such as references to the United States Uniform Commercial Code – something that you almost certainly do not want in a Canadian contract.

 

Clear Communication:

A further benefit of written agreement is that good communication and clear terms help stop disputes before they start. All too often parties skirt around the difficult or contentious issues in a business relationship, hoping to avoid conflict. In reality, by not dealing with these issues up front, the potential conflict is only pushed into the future, where both parties may have spent time and money in reliance upon agreement terms that they thought existed.

 

Damage Control:

As a final last resort, it can be beneficial to clearly communicate important terms of an agreement to the other party in writing, even if that written communication takes the form of text messages or emails. Text messages and emails are admissible as evidence, and we routinely utilize such documents in court to protect our clients’ rights.

 

The difficulty is that you cannot force terms upon someone merely by sending them a message. If the other party replies with their agreement to your stated terms, that would be beneficial. If the other party disputes the terms, then at least you have identified a disagreement early on, before time and money has been expended. If the other party just ignores your message containing the terms, and does not agree or disagree, then it may be possible to argue that they went forward with the agreement, knowing that you were relying upon the terms that you set out to them. The latter situation is a far from ideal, and if the other party does not acknowledge your terms, you should follow up to clarify your agreement, sooner rather than later.

 

In conclusion, beware of people who refuse to put things into writing. If someone balks at committing your verbal agreement to a written form, there is usually a reason, and it is better to find out sooner rather than later what that reason is.

 

If you are seeking a well drafted purchase and sale contract, partnership agreement, shareholders agreement, or other contract, or if you are involved in a business dispute, we offer a free half-hour consultation to discuss your situation and legal needs. Please feel free to contact us to schedule an appointment.